A narcotic drug, grown in our United States of America, which at certain stages of itfs use arouses the desire to mutilate and kill, rape and rob, is fast becoming a serious problem to the welfare of decent law abiding citizens, and to those who wage the war upon crime. With several of the states having no laws against its production, sale or use, it is slowly but definitely finding its ways into circles not heretofore contaminated. it is making serious entrenchment amongst many of our youths in the cities who are fast becoming addicts due to the gkick and thrillh habit of this vile and demoralizing weed. (Editor's Note: A new Federal law makes it unlawful to grow, sell, transport or have Marihuana in your possession.)
Marihuana is not a new drug. It has existed for years and years, and was known and used in China as far back as the year 220 A.D. It is used in many forms; the method in this country being to smoke it in pipes or cigarette, or place it in beer, or various other alcoholic beverages. The cigarettes sell from ten to twenty-five cents each, and lately packages of Marihuana cigarettes have been seen packed in the ordinary domestic types of wrappers ; greater pains being taken to make these cigarettes than the cheaper types.
The manner in which these cigarettes are made and prepared are such that they would escape ordinary inspection, as one would not suspect that they contained a death dealing weed within their papers. The dealer takes an ordinary legitimate packet of cigarettes and using great skill opens it; takes out the contents ; removes, the tobacco from each cigarette; inserts the Marihuana and replaces a little genuine tobacco in the ends of each cigarette; refills the package and seals it up again. Many, however, are sold in bulk, in small boxes, or in single cigarettes. They have been sold in pool halls, dance halls, hot dog stands, at fairs and carnivals, newspaper stands, around high schools, and in fact anywhere in which the demand has warranted the dealer to place them. To the smoker of these cigarettes many are the distorted and mind crazed emotions that are produced. Before going into the effects of this drug upon the addict it may be worth while to glance over its origin and see what history has to say about it.
Known by Various Names
It goes under many different names, such as Hashish, Hasheesh, Bhang, Hay, Indian hemp, Marihuanaq, Mary Warner, Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis Indica, Loco Weed, Muggles, Grifo, Moota, Mooter, Guaza, Ganjah, Kiff, Reefers, Sex Weed, Dama Starter, etc. The Mexicans know it as Marihuana or Loco weed; loco being the Spanish word for crazy. This name is given to it for the effects it produces upon the taker. In early days of China this drug weed was used to produce insensibility when performing surgical operations. The Persians used it in the Middle Ages to arouse the pugnacity and fanaticism of the soldiers during the wars of the Crusades. According to S. de Lacy the word assassin is derived from gHashismh the name given to a wild and ruthless sect of Mohammedans who committed wholesale murders while under the drugfs influence. Hashish or Bhang is the name given to the flowering tops of the Indian Hemp after being dried. The name Indian Hemp derived from the fact that the plant was grown on a large scale and cultivated in India. the botanical classification of this plant is Cannabis sativea, var indica, sometimes called Cannabis indica. In the dried flowering unfertilized tops of the female plant are the products that make it sought after by the addict. The parts collected are the upper leaves and the flower bracts, because within these are the vessels which contain the gums or resins which contain the alkaloid, which is known as Cannabinol.
To this Cannabinol, the alkaloid, may be traced the toxic and intoxicating properties of the drug. The warmer the climate the more powerful the drug appears to be. In certain parts of the world the altitude and climate have a marked effect upon the type of plant grown. In India, Turkey, Africa, and in the Southern United States the plant has a greater narcotic action than that grown in more temperate regions.
Smoked in Pipes by East Indians
It is used in India for smoking in combination with tobacco. A plug of tobacco is placed in the bottom of the pipe, and then a little hashish on top, stop of which is then placed a small glowing charcoal. The natives call one part of the plant Ganja, and another part which contains less resin, Sidho. The resinous principle is called churrus or charas, and the entire plant when it is cut and dried in the sun is called Bhang. In India the churrus or the charas and the ganja is used for the smoking but not the bhang or the sidhi. Most of the poorer types of natives use it after eating, and it is quite common for them to end the day's work with a smoke of this. It seems to increase their appetites and apparently produces no ill effects. Simple infusions of the leaves and flowering tops are used for drinking purposes in India, and the alcoholic form is a most dangerous drink indeed. The hemp occurs as stated in several forms and, bhang, which is a dark green color, is made from the entire plant after it is dried and mixed with a few fruits. It has a very, odd odor but practically no taste. When it is mixed with a little flour it is called hashish. Majun is a name given to a type of candy form, of which Indian hemp is the basis, mixed with nux vomica, opium, or cantharides. This mixture is given to criminals there before they go out to commit their crimes.
Consequences of Use---Terrifying
The effects of this terrible drug may best be described by the experiences as given by Gautier, who relates his own experiences while under its spell. A few minutes after taking it a sudden overwhelming sensation came to him and it appeared as if his body were dissolved and that he had become transparent. He saw in his stomach the hashish that he had taken, under the form of an emerald from which a thousand little sparks seemed to issue. His eyelashes were lengthened indefinitely and rolled like threads of gold around ivory balls which turned with inconceivable rapidity. Around him were sparklings of precious stones of all colors, like the play of a kaleidoscope. He every now and then saw his friends who were around him disfigured as half men and half plant; some having the wings of an ostrich, which they were constantly shaking. So strange were these that he burst into fits of laughter, and to join in the apparent ridiculousness of the affair he began by throwing the cushions into the air, catching and turning them with the rapidity of an Indian juggler. One gentleman spoke to him in Italian, which the hashish transposed into Spanish. After a few minutes lie recovered his habitual calmness. Half an hour later he again fell under the influence of the drug. On this occasion the vision was more complicated and extraordinary. In the air there were millions of butterflies, confusedly luminous, shaking their wings like fans. Gigantic flowers with chances of crystal; large peonies upon beds of gold and silver rose, surrounded him with the crackling sound that accompanies the explosion of fireworks in the air. His hearing had acquired new power; it was enormously developed. He heard the noise of colors. Green, red, blue, yellow sounds reached him in waves---a glass thrown down, the cracking of the sofa, a word pronounced low, vibrated and rolled within him like peals of thunder. His own voice sounded so loud that he feared to speak lest he should knock down the walls or explode like a rocket. Sounds, perfume, light, reached him only by minute rays, in the midst of which he heard mystic currents whistling along. According to his calculation, this state lasted three hundred years, for the sensations were so numerous and so hurried one upon the other that the real appreciation of time was impossible. The paroxysm over he was aware that it had only lasted a quarter of an hour.
Experiences Complete Delirium
Another very interesting account of the effects produced by this drug is the result of Dr. Moreau's experiments.
At first," he relates, "I thought that my companions were less influenced by the drug than myself. Then as the effect, I fancied that the person who brought me the dose had given me some of more active quality. This I thought to myself, was an imprudence and the involuntary idea presented itself that I might be poisoned. The idea became fixed; I called out loudly to Dr. Roche 'You are an assassin; you have poisoned me'; This was received with shouts of laughter, and my lamentations excited mirth. I struggled for some time against the thought, but the greater the effort the more completely did it overcome me, till at last it took full possession of my mind. The extravagant conviction came uppermost that I was dead, and upon the point of being buried; my soul had left my body. In a few minutes I had gone through all the stages of delirium." Read over the two cases cited again, and ask yourself is it any small wonder that a person while under the effects of this dangerous drug commits murder and acts of violence?
The continued use of this drug in any of its forms will in time disorder the brain and cause a permanent injury, resulting in a weakened condition, rendering the person incapable of separating the true from that which is false. The use of Marihuana numbs the moral senses, leads to a delirium of a very dangerous type, and what is of great economic importance, the taker becomes unfit to go on with his occupation. After it is all over the illusions leave just a body and mind over exerted, tired, broken, and numb. One set of illusions yell for more.
Many Everyday Uses for Hemp
Indian hemp has been used in this country for commercial purposes, and it was used by the early New England people to make their cloth. Indian hemp was grown for many years with no misuse connected with it; homespun cloths, twine, ropes, and hats were made from its fibres. The seeds of the plant were used in extracting a drying oil that has been greatly used in the arts, as well as a commercial substitute for linseed oil. The seed has been mixed with other seeds to feed canaries. A part of the dried flowering tops of the pistillate plant are used in the preparation o certain pharmaceutical products.
The misuse of this plant seems to have come from the Mexican border, where the smoking of the drug in cigarettes has been going on for some time. For many years it has been grown in Mexico and used for illicit purposes. This plant will grow almost anywhere. It may be found to grow along the roadside upon our highways. It seems to grow better in the states bordering the Gulf and Mexico, a well as in the states of Arkansas, Colorado, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Kansas, Florida, Georgia and parts of the Carolinas. However as was mentioned before it may be grown practically all over; plants have even been seen to thrive in flower pots(sic) and window boxes.
A favorite method for dealers in this drug is to have it grown inside of large corn fields, where it is hidden from the view of those passing by oil the roads. It is cut and carted away at night and sold to the buyers in large cities. Some addicts use the drug in beer or add it to other alcoholic beverages. But no matter in what form it is used, be it smoked, eaten or mixed in a drink, its effect is the same. It is a deadly and dangerous weapon, which must be stopped. Death may result from its effect upon the heart, as it slows down the heart beat, and can cause an irregularity of the pulse rate.
This new vice within our country is sweeping out into all sections, from the South and Southwest to the Middle West, Southeast and Northeast. New circles are learning to smoke this blight of mind, the youth of our larger and smaller cities are trying it for a thrill.
There is no doubt but that Marihuana smoking leads to physical destruction and mental decay, and it has a marked effect upon the character, destroying morality. It makes liars and thieves out of its users. They become utterly untrustworthy and drift into the underworld, to commit greater crimes. This drug gives one the lust to kill without motive, and as such has been called the killer drug.
Scope of Vice International
The international situation regarding Marihuana is serious, so much so, in fact, that the World Narcotic Defense Association has waged war upon its growth and uses. According to their reports the following are worthy of note:
1. That there is a large illicit trade in this drug throughout the world.
2. It has been estimated that there are some 200 million people throughout the world who consume Marihuana in some form or other.
3. The larger number of addicts are found in Egypt, United States, and Siam.
4. In some countries internal laws are not strong enough to allow effective control.
5. If national and international legislation does not soon restrict the growth and illicit rise- of Indian hemp, then the traffic in illicit drugs will move its activities to the sale of drugs made from hemp. It is already taking the place of heroin in some countries.
We can shut our eyes to this problem and say "that it is all false alarms, that our people would never go for this habit in large numbers, perhaps a few here and there, but after all it must not be taken too seriously." To those that feel this way about the question then read what follows, taken from actual cases and extracts from the World Narcotic Defense Association's publications, and the records of the Federal Narcotics Bureau, and various police blotters.
Federal Bureau Reports
From the Federal Narcotics Bureau, incomplete reports upon Marihuana for a year period ending about November 10, 1934. In the city of New York alone there were 300 convictions for the violations of the Marihuana law; in the State of California there were 135 convictions, 1,512 pounds of the drug were seized and 2,035 actual growing plants were destroyed. 25,000 cigarettes were taken in the state of Oklahoma. In Pennsylvania there were 71 convictions, in Ohio 60, and in Texas 50. Florida recently enacted the Uniform Narcotic Act with the Marihuana control provision, and within a month 22 arrests were made in Tampa for the sale of Marihuana. Since then more than 50 pounds of drug and over 1,770 cigarettes have been confiscated.
On June 7, 1935 it was reported that Marihuana was found to be growing in the San Quentin prison yard. >From some of this cigarettes had been made and smoked by some of the prisoners. As a result two prisoners were placed in the dungeon. June 17, 1935, in the backyard of a deserted house in Brooklyn, N. Y., police came across a large growth of Marihuana, and destroyed it.
The state narcotic agents of California raided a ranch growth of Marihuana near Azusa, and found that the amount seized was enough to make some $25,000 worth of cigarettes.
It can be seen that there is no need to smuggle the weed into this country, for it grows here too well and seems to be produced upon a large scale.
From the city of New Orleans comes the following report. Of a group of 450 persons[prisoners] there were 125 Marihuana addicts, young people whose ages ran from 18 to 31 years; out of 37 murderers 17 were addicted to the use of this drug, and out of 193 persons convicted of large thefts 30 were users of the weed. About one out of four arrested in that city were Marihuana addicts.
Now let us see some actual cases taken from the records of the Federal Narcotic Bureau.
Florida. A young man who had become addicted to smoking Marihuana cigarettes, while under the effects of the drug, imagined that a number of people were trying to cut off his arms and legs, seized an axe and killed his father, mother, two brothers and a sister, wiping out the entire family.
Smuggled Into Prison
Michigan. Some time ago some Marihuana was smuggled into the state prison at Marquette. At the same time a gain and ammunition were also Smuggled in. From the effects of the drug one prisoner named Tyczak, shot and killed the prison doctor and a trusty.
California. A man while under the effects of Marihuana decapitated his best friend, then corning out of the influence of the drug was amazed and horrified to see what he had done.
Cases of sexual assault and rape (continued on page 18)
The Marihuana Menace (Continued from page 5)
are numerous while under the spell of Marihuana and it is this increase of cases of this type that is beginning to bring the importance of immediate action to the heads of all families, schools and civic clubs.
Some cities have passed ordinances against the drug, among them being, Kansas City, Mo. ; St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn ; Lexington, Covington and Newport, Kentucky. The agents of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics have done much to aid in the fight against Marihuana, in aiding the successful passing of municipal ordinances governing the growth and sale of Marihuana in some cities in those states in which there were no statues covering the subjects, as well as in those states in which the enforcement agencies were lax.
Need of Stringent Laws Stressed
How shall we attack the problem? The writer can do no better than cite the remedial measures as outlined by the World Narcotic Defense Association :
1. Constructive legislation and efficient law enforcement.
Legislation---those states having no law dealing with Marihuana should it once enact legislation placing the production of hemp under control, and also control the sale, rise and possession of Marihuana suggested by the Federal Bureau of narcotics, and such laws when made should and must be ENFORCED. In those towns and cities in which the states in which they are in have no laws on this subject should at once enact city ordinances against this serious acute menace. The enforcement of law often depends in a large measure upon education, and in is towards educational methods that we must turn for a large part of our results in attacking the marihuana question.
Definite information must be brought to the attention of all regarding the dangers of the drug. Talks at school, civic clubs, and churches must be made in which the dangers and seriousness of this habit of smoking Marihuana produce upon all who tamper wit it.
Authority Predicts Trouble
Perhaps no man has given more time and thought to the fighting of Marihuana than the late Admiral Hobson, who during his lifetime was head of the World Narcotic Defense Association, New York City. Some few weeks prior to his death Admiral Hobson was kind enough to see the writer of this article, and during the interview Marihuana was discussed. Said the admiral, gI am sure that in the Marihuana question we have a fight upon our hands, just as great and as hard as with that of morphine, and I am incline to feel that the effects are as bad as any drug that I know about.h
Admiral Hobson has passed on, but the World Narcotic Defense Association still will continue its great work, a monument to the man who aided in its formation. The Federal Narcotic Bureau will fight on against this menace as far as it can go, but it remains for the citizens of every state, every city ;laid town, large or small to get out and exert their influence in sweeping this scourge this scourge from America.